- (1876-1931)politician; led the Republic's long-lived Great Coalition.* He was born in Mannheim to a middle-class home; his father was a factory director. He studied business and then clerked for com-mercial firms in Frankfurt and Breslau. In 1893 he joined the SPD; he became editor in 1899 of the Görlitzer Volkszeitung and served on the Görlitz city council in 1903-1906. He relocated to Berlin* in 1906 to join the SPD's Par-teivorstand and served in the Party's Press and Foreign Relations offices. A Party moderate, he reported from Paris when war erupted the considerable sup-port among French workers in favor of war credits; thereafter he had no qualms over supporting SPD policy.Müller entered the Reichstag* in 1916. During the revolution he represented the SPD on the Berlin executive of the Workers and Soldiers Councils.* He was elected to the National Assembly* and remained in the Reichstag from June 1920 until his death, serving as faction leader during 1920-1928. Clever and influential, he became Foreign Minister in June 1919 and, with Transportation Minister Johannes Bell of the Center Party,* assumed the burden of signing the Versailles Treaty.* As Chancellor during March-June 1920, he led the last Wei-mar Coalition.* A pragmatist, he believed that socialism was attainable only through compromise with the liberal, middle-class parties. But his reputation was damaged after the Kapp* Putsch when he was irresolute when faced with Communist insurrection in the Ruhr. Atypically, it was Müller who entered the motion of no confidence in November 1923 that toppled the cabinet of Gustav Stresemann.*Müller returned as Chancellor in the Great Coalition of June 1928 to March 1930. Buffeted by several frustrating episodes, his government was perpetually spurned by at least one member of his broad-based coalition, including the SPD (Otto Wels,* cochairman of the faction, remarked in January 1930 that the Party and the government should not be confused with one another). The controversial issues that rocked his government included construction of a pocket battleship (permitted by Versailles), reform of reparations* via the Young Plan,* and fund-ing of unemployment insurance in the wake of the depression.* Ultimately, it was the inability of the SPD and the DVP to compromise on a means to finance unemployment insurance that ruined his coalition. Some time before he resigned, Müller (already quite ill) accurately predicted that his cabinet's collapse would end parliamentary democracy in Germany. Hindenburg,* who otherwise loathed the SPD, later claimed that Müller was the best of his Chancellors.REFERENCES:Benz and Graml, Biographisches Lexikon; Breitman, German Socialism; Eyck, History of the Weimar Republic, vol. 2; Maurer, Reichsfinanzen.
A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. C. Paul Vincent.
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MÜLLER (HERMANN) — MÜLLER HERMANN (1876 1931) Personnage influent du Parti social démocrate (S.P.D.); dès 1906, où il entre au comité directeur, Hermann Müller est mêlé aux moments cruciaux de l’histoire allemande jusqu’après la crise de 1929. Il collabore en 1912… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Müller-Hermann — ist der Familienname von Ernst Müller Hermann (1915–1994), deutscher Politiker der CDU Johanna Müller Hermann (1868–1941), österreichische Komponistin Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer m … Deutsch Wikipedia
Müller, Hermann — ▪ chancellor of Germany born May 18, 1876, Mannheim, Ger. died March 20, 1931, Berlin statesman and leader of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany)) who was twice chancellor of coalition governments… … Universalium
Muller, Hermann Joseph — born Dec. 21, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S. died April 5, 1967, Indianapolis, Ind. U.S. geneticist. He attended Columbia University. The possibility of consciously guiding human evolution provided the initial motivation for his research, leading him … Universalium
Muller , Hermann Joseph — (1890–1967) American geneticist Born in New York City, Muller was awarded a scholarship to Columbia University in 1907 and specialized in heredity during his undergraduate studies. On graduation he took up a teaching fellowship in physiology at… … Scientists
Muller,Hermann Joseph — Mul·ler (mŭlʹər), Hermann Joseph. 1890 1967. American geneticist. He won a 1946 Nobel Prize for the study of the hereditary effect of x rays on genes. * * * … Universalium
Muller, Hermann Joseph — (1890–1967) US biologist and geneticist and Nobel laureate, 1946. Muller, a professor at the University of Indiana, was the first to establish that biological mutations were the result of chemical changes that could be induced artificially.… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Muller, Hermann Joseph — (1890 1967) American scientist. He was professor at the University of Indiana and established that biological mutations were the result of chemical changes that could be induced artificially. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
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